Course 4, Week 1 Frameworks for Learning


“While educational technology does make learning visible, it is the teacher that makes learning meaningful.” L. Portnoy

I fell down an internet rabbit hole while researching technology integration frameworks this week. There are so many articles, videos, and graphics!

When planning lessons, teachers use a framework to assist in deciding on how to best teach the content while integrating technology. The two frameworks we considered were Substitution, Augmentation, Modification, and Redefinition (SAMR) and Technological knowledge, Pedagogical knowledge, and Content Knowledge (TPACK).

“We want to impact student learning, not just replace a tool with a tool.”  -NCVPS


The SAMR model was created by Dr. Ruben Puentedura in 2010 to assist teachers in reflecting on how they are using technology in their lessons. SAMR is designed to help teachers use technology to move their tech from enhancing learning to it transforming learning. It has been likened to making the switch from crawling to walking. Google doc with the SAMR ladder graphic


TPACK is also a framework teachers can use to guide their use of technology with their students and it was introduced by Punya Mishra and Matthew J. Koehler of Michigan State University in 2006. There are three areas of knowledge teachers use (1) content, (2) pedagogy, and (3) technology. The content knowledge is the “what”-their subject matter, the pedagogy is the “how”-what activities they use to teach, and finally, the teacher’s technology knowledge is how they layer the tech into the lesson to improve the students’ learning.


I created this graphic with tech at the bottom because it shouldn’t be the first we think about. -HM

This infographic compares and contrasts the SAMR and TPACK frameworks for technology integration using a Double Bubble Thinking Map. Google doc with the Double Bubble Map

Google doc with the Double Bubble Map:
My practice of technology integration

I am a support teacher for third grade and I do a lot of small groups and one-on-one teaching. Currently, I am using technology to meet with students at home. We meet in my Webex room to work on reading and writing. We use several Google tools like Slides, Docs, and Google Search. I prepare some lessons in a Google Slide deck for students to see easily. I use Reading A to Z for online books to read with students. I sometimes use a document camera to show writing and reading books. According to the SAMR framework, I am at the Substituting and Augmenting level. I am using more technology now than ever. Before teaching online, I did not use a lot of technology with the teaching I was doing.

My school’s technology vision

My beliefs and practices fit into my school’s vision for learning. I try to personalize learning for my students by offering choices. I provide immediate feedback on students’ work while we are together. I encourage students to be risk-takers and to learn from their mistakes. When learning takes a turn due to students’ interests and questions, I welcome it.

my schools’ technology vision
Real-world example

Serendipitously, this week my son, Jacob, shared a video he made for his English 201 class. After viewing his video, I had to ask to see the instructions he had followed to come up with his product because I was very curious. You can see the full prompt in the screenshot below from Jacob’s phone. (I also thought it apropos Jacob accessed his course assignment on his mobile. I cannot imagine completing my course from my mobile! I am definitely showing my age.:) The professor explained in the instructions for the final paper the students are to create “an easily consumable video” instead of “scrambling to submit a behemoth final paper last minute.” I was pleased to see the professor had moved her teaching practice to the top rung of the SAMR ladder with this assignment.

There are many frameworks available for teachers to use to improve their lessons involving technology. The SAMR is quick to gauge at what level your lesson is. The TPACK helps teachers to keep the different types of knowledge in mind. Regardless of which technology integration framework you choose, we need to keep attempting to improve our teaching by constantly learning more to stay current. Being aware of these frameworks is a step in the right direction.


Ady, K. & Kemp, B. TPACK vs SAMR: Key Differences Between 2 Tech Frameworks. Rretrieved from 

Alivi, J. (2019). A REVIEW OF TPACK AND SAMR MODELS: HOW SHOULD LANGUAGE TEACHERS ADOPT TECHNOLOGY?. Journal of English for Academic and Specific Purposes. 2. 1. 10.18860/jeasp.v2i2.7944.

Bevans, J. (1 Nov 20) Week 1: Frameworks for Learning. Retrieved from

Introduction to the SAMR Model. Retrieved from

NCVPS Professional Learning. Take 5: Why use TPACK and SAMR?

Marshburn, J. (8 Nov 20) Jacob's Eng 201 final. Retrieved from

Portnoy, L. (1 Feb 18). How SAMR and Tech Can Help Teachers Truly Transform Assessment. Retrieved from

3 thoughts on “Course 4, Week 1 Frameworks for Learning”

  1. Hi Holly!
    I really liked the Double Bubble thinking map you made, comparing and contrasting SAMR and TPACK. Wish I had thought of doing that, as it is now much easier for me to understand the two frameworks from your Double Bubble thinking map.

    I think it’s interesting that we both felt that the SAMR framework is easier to understand. I wanted to see what others in the world thought about the two frameworks we learned about, so I did a quick Google search for “compare and contrast TPACK and SAMR”. I found a blog post that stated “The TPACK model focuses more on the knowledge required to meaningfully integrate technology, and the SAMR model focuses more on what meaningful technology integration looks like” (blog post:,meaningful%20technology%20integration%20looks%20like.&text=The%20TPACK%20model%20simply%20outlines,understand%20how%20to%20integrate%20technology.). This quote from the blog makes sense to me. I also found a YouTube video from Schoology ( where Kellie Ady says that “something that I think gets ignored is this idea that technology has to be layered in and layered over content knowledge and pedagogy.” Kellie Ady makes a case for the TPACK framework. I found it interesting that in the Schoology video that they made the TPACK model into a target, instead of the three circle Venn diagram.

  2. Hey Holly, I love the graphic you created- it was a wonderful reminder on not putting the Tech. first- so important. I also couldn’t agree more, on not trying to participate in and complete the classroom from your mobile. Absolutely not. Love the real-life example- and also looking at how that connects to our class with the practicality use of designing things to use in our classrooms- final projects etc. Being that we share the same Tech. principals, did you wonder more about the process and roll out of it, as it remains in a “draft” stage and having other goals in mind for preferences in other frameworks? Or wondering how perhaps it even differs between your ES and my MS experiences and how that then builds students for their HS experiences. I too got lost down a rabbit hole when understanding TPACK and SAMR and found countless resources that were extremely helpful and will aid in reflection, lesson planning, and unit designing. Thanks for the post! I look forward to chatting with you more about our tech principals and bringing them into our final projects and course 5!- Shalene

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